ArbeitsGemeinschaft PNF
Deutscher Verband für Physiotherapie (ZVK) e.V.






PNF Books:


  1. Knott M,Voss DE: Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation – patterns and techniques 2nd edition. New York Haper & Row publishers 1968
  2. Voss DE, Jonta MK, Meyers BJ: Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation – patterns and techniques 3rd edition. New York Haper & Row publishers 1985
  3. Sullivan PE, Markos PD, Minor MA: PNF- Ein weg zum therapeutischen Üben. Stuttgart, Fischer Verlag 1985.
  4. Buck M, Beckers D, Adler S: PNF in Practice. Springer Verlag / publishers 2008.
  5. Hedin- Anden S: PNF Grundverfahren und funtionelles Training. München, Urban & Fischer1994
  6. Horst R: Motorisches Strategietraining und PNF. Stuttgart, Thieme 2005
  7. Horst R: Therapiekonzepte in der Physiotherapie-PNF. Stuttgart, Thieme 2008




Literature list, direct PNF related:


  1. Cornelius WL, Jensen RL, Odell ME: Effects of PNF stretching phases on acute arterial blood pressure. Can. Jo. Appl Physiology 1995 (2)222-229
  2. Nitz J, Burke B. A study of the facilitation of respiration in myotonic dystrophy. Physiotherapy research international 2002 (4) 228-238
  3. Yigiter K, Sener G, Erbahceci F, BayarK, Ülger ÖG, Akodogan S: A comparison of traditional prosthetic training versus PNF resistive gait training with trans-femoral amputees. Prosthetics  and orthotics international 2002 (26) 213-217
  4. Mirek e, ea. Przydatnosc trójwymiarowej analizy lokomocji dla usprawniania ruchowego metoda PNF chorych na chorobe Parkinsona. Neurol. Neurochir. Poland 2003 (5) 89-102
  5. Wang RY. The effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation in case of patients with hemiplegia of long and short duration. Physical Therapy 1994 (12) 25-32
  6. Reichel HS PNF: Gangschulung. Sportverletzung, sportschaden 1996 (10) A11-A20
  7. Luke C, Dodd KJ, Brock K: Outcomes of the Bobath concept on upper limb recovery follwing stroke. Clinical Rehabilitation 2004 (18) 888-898
  8. Ernst E: A review of stroke rehabilitation and physiotherapy. Stroke 1990 (21) 1081-1085
  9. Duncan P ea.: A Randomized, controlled pilot study of a home – based exercise program for individuals with mild and moderate stroke. Stroke 1998 (29) 2055-2060
  10. Duncan P ea. RCT of therapeutic exercise in subacute stroke. Stroke 2003 (34) 2173-2180
  11. Pohl M, Mehrholz J, Ritschel C, Rückriem S: Speed dependent treadmill training in ambulatory hemiparetic stroke patients : A RCT. Stroke 2002 (33) 553-558
  12. Kraft GH, Fitts SS, Hammond MC: Techniques to improve function of the arm and hand in chronic hemiplegia. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabilitation 1992(3) 220-227
  13. Shimura K, Kasai T: Effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on the initiation of voluntary movement and motor evoked potentials in upper limb muscles. Human movement science 2002 (1) 101-113
  14. KofotolisN, Vrabas IS, Vamvakoudis E, Papanikolaou A, Mandroukas K: Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation training induced alterations in muscle fiber type and cross sectional area. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2005 (3):e11.
  15. Arai M, ea : Effects of the use of cross-education to the affected side through various resistive exercises of the sound side and settings of the length of the affected muscles. Hiroshima journal of medical science 2001 (3):65-73
  16. Marek SM ea. : Acute effects of static and PNF stretching on muscle strength and power output. Journal of athletic training 2005 (2) 94-103
  17. Myers JB, Lephart SM: The role of the sensorimotor system in the athletic shoulder Journal of athletic training 2000 (3) 351-363
  18. Epifanov VA,  Shuliakovskii V V: The rehabilitative therapy of patients with osteochondrosis of the cervical spine and manifestations of hyper mobility by means of therapeutic physical exercise. Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2000 (1):8-11.(Russian)
  19. Schneider F, Laps K, Wagner S: Chronic patello femoral pain syndrome: alternatives for cases of therapy resistance. Knee surgery sports traumatology arthroscopy 2001 Sep;9(5):290-295
  20. Klein DA, Stone WJ, ea. PNF training and physical function in assisted living older adults. Journal of aging and physical activity 2002 (10) 476-488
  21. Godges JJ, Matsen-Bell M, Thorpe D, Shah D:  The immediate effects of soft tissue mobilization with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on glenohumeral external rotation and overhead reach. Journal of orthopedics sports and Physical Therapy 2003 (12) 713-718
  22. Kofotolis N, Eleftherios K: Effects of two 4-week PNF programs on muscle endurance, flexibility, and functional performance in women with CLBP. Physical Therapy 2006 (7) 1001-1012
  23. Church JB, Wiggins MS, Moode FM, Crist R: Effect of warm-up and flexibility treatments on vertical jump performance  Jo. Strenght cond. Research 2001 (3):332-336
  24. Mc Mullen J, Uhl TL: A kinetic chain approach for shoulder rehabilitation. Journal of athletic training 2000 (3) 329-337
  25. Johnson GS, Johnson VS. The application of the principles and procedures of PNF for the care of lumbar spinal instabilities. The Journal of manual and Manipulative therapy 2002 (2) 83-105
  26. Magarey ME, Jones MA. Dynamic evaluation and early management of altered motor control around the shoulder complex. Manual Therapy 2003 (4) 195-206
  27. Sarburg PR, Schrader JW: Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Techniques in Sports Medicine: A Reassessment. Journal of athletic training 1997 (1):34-39.
  28. Weerapong P, Hume PA, Kolt GS: Stretching: mechanisms and benefits for sport performance and injury prevention. Physical Therapy Reviews 2004 (9) 189-206
  29. Chalmers G: Re-examination of the possible role of Golgi tendon organ and muscle spindle reflexes in proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation muscle stretching. Sports biomechanics 2004 (1) 159-183
  30. Funk DC, Swank AM, Mikla BM, Fagan TA, Farr BK: Impact of prior exercise on hamstring flexibility: a comparison of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and static stretching. Journal of strength and conditioning research 2003 (3):489-492
  31. Wenos DL, Konin JG: Controlled warm-up intensity enhances hip range of motion. Journal of strength and conditioning research 2004 (3):529-533
  32. Davis DS, Ashby PE, Mc Cale KL, Mc Quain JA, Wine JM: The effectiveness of 3 stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility using consistent stretching parameters. Journal of strength and conditioning research 2005 (1):27-32.
  33. Feland JB, Marin HN: Effect of sub maximal contraction intensity in contract-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching. British journal of sports medicine 2004
  34. Schuback B, Hooper J, Salisburg L: A comparison of a self stretch incorporating PNF components and a therapist applied PNF technique on hamstring flexibility. Physiotherapy 2004 (3) 151-157
  35. Rowlands AV, Marginson VF, Lee J: Chronic flexibility gains: effect of isometric contraction duration during proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching techniques. Research Quarterly Exercise and sports 2003 (1):47-51.
  36. Bonnar BP, Deivert RG, Gould TE: The relationship between isometric contraction durations during hold-relax stretching and improvement of hamstring flexibility. Journal sports medicine and physical fitness 2004 (3) 258-261
  37. Deccicco PV, Fisher FM: The effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on shoulder range of motion in overhand athletes. Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness 2005 (2):183-187.
  38. Moore MA, Kulkulka CG: Depression of Hoffmann reflexes following voluntary contraction and implications for proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation therapy. Physical Therapy 1991 (4):321-329; discussion 329-33.
  39. Ferber R, Gravelle DC, Osternig LR. Effect of PNF stretch techniques on trained and untrained older adults. Journal of aging and physical activity 2002 (10) 132-142
  40. Ferber R, Osternig LR, Gravelle DC: Effect of PNF stretch techniques on knee flexor muscle EMG activity in older adults. Journal of electromyography and kinesiology 2002 (12) 391-397
  41. Olivo SA, Magee DJ: Electromyographic assessment of the activity of the masticatory using the agonist contract – antagonist relax technique (AC) and contract – relax technique (CR). Manual therapy 2006 (2) 136-145
  42. Carter AM, Kinzey SJ, Chitwood LF, Cole JL: PNF decreases muscle activity during the stretch reflex in selected posterior thigh muscles. Journal of sport rehabilitation 2000 (9) 269-278
  43. Barros Ribeiro Cilento M: Evaluation of the efficacy of train protocols of the sit to stand movement, M. Cilento. Fisioterapi Brasil (6) 2006
  44. Olivo SA, Magee DJ: Electromyogrphic activity of the masticatory and cervical muscles during resisted jaw opening movement. Journal of oral rehabilitation 2007 (34) 184-194
  45. Rees SS, Murphy AJ, Watsford ML, McLachlan KA, Coutts AJ: Effects of PNF stretching on stiffness and force producing characteristics of the ankle in active women. Journal of strength and conditioning research 2007 (2) 572-577
  46. Bradley PS, Olsen PD, Portas MD: The effect of static, balstic and PNF stretching on vertical jump performance Journal of strength and conditioning research 2007 (1) 223-226
  47. Gabriel DA, Kamen G, Frost G: Neural adaptations to resistive exercise, mechanisms and recommendations for training practices. Sports Med 2006 (2) 183-189
  48. Sharman MJ, Cresswell AG, Riek S: Prorioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching, mechanisms and clinical implications. Sports Med 2006 (11) 929-939
  49. Carlson M, Hadlock T: Physical Therapist Management following rotator cuff repair for a patient with postpolio syndrome, Case Report. Physical Therapy 2007 (87) 179-192
  50. Namura M, Motoyoshi M, Namura Y, Shimizu N: The effect of PNF training on the facial profile. Journal of oral science 2008 (1) 45-51





 Literature list EBP related:


1.      Maher CG, Sherrington C, Elkins M, Herbert RD, Moseley AM: Challenges for EBP: Accesing and interpreting High-Quality evidence on therapy. Physical therapy 2004 (7) 644-654

2.      Straus SE, Sacket DL: Getting research findings into practice. BMJ 1998 (8) 339-342

3.      IPNFA, educational committee: Course curriculum content, teaching units. .

4.      Herbert R, Jamtvedt G, Mead J, Hagen KB: Outcome measures measure outcomes, not effects of intervention. Australian journal of physiotherapy 2005 3-4 (editorial)


Literature list Motor learning related:


  1. Charlton JL, Motor control issues and clinical applications. Physiotherapie theory and practice 1994 (10) 185-190
  2. Corcos DM, Strategies underlying the control of disordered movement. Physical Therapy 1991 (71) 25-38
  3. Frank JS, Earl M, Coördination of posture and movement. Physical Therapy 1990 (12) 109-117
  4. Lee TD, Swanson LR, Hall AL, What is repeated in a repetition? Effects of practice conditions on motor skill acquisition. Physical Therapy 1991 (71) 150-156
  5. Marks R, Peripheral mechanisms underlying the signalling of joint position. NZ Journal of Physiotherapie 1997 April
  6. Mulder T, A process- oriented model of human motor behaviour: toward a theory-based rehabilitation approuch. Physical Therapy 1991 (2) 82-89.
  7. Winstein CJ, Knowledge of results and motor learning - Implications for physical therapy. Physical Threapy 1991 (71) 140-149.




Literature list Bio-mechanics related:


  1. Comerford MJ, Gibbons SGT, Kraft versus Stabilität Teil 1 und 2 Manuelle Therapie 2002 (5,6) 13-20.
  2. Grzebellus M, Schäfer C, Irradiation aus biomechanischer Sicht. Krankengymnastik Zeitschrift für Physiotherapeuten 1998 (9) 1489-1494
  3. Hodges PW, Richardson CA, Inefficient muscular stabilization of the lumbar spine associated with low back pain. Spine 1996 (22) 2640-2650.
  4. McQuade KJ, Smidt GL, Dynamic scapulohumeral Rythem: the effects of external resistance during elevation of the arm in the scapular plane. JOSPT 1998 (2) 125-131
  5. O'Sullivan PB, Twomey LT, Allison GT, Evaluation of specific stabilizing exercise in the treatment of chronic low back pain with radiologic diagnosis of spondylosis or spondylisthesis. Spine 1997 (24) 2959-2967.
  6. Stiene HA, Brosky T, Reinking MF, Nyland J, Mason BM, A comparison of closed kinetic chain and isokinetic joint isolation exercise in patients with patellofemoral dysfunction. JOSPT 1996 (3) 136- 141.



aktualisiert 13/07/2019